Računovodstvo, revizija i financije

Računovodstvo, revizija i financije


Samopomoć - uvodnik glavnog urednika

rrif - 10.2013, str. 15

Accounting of Buses, Cargo Vehicles and Industry Machines in View of New VAT Act

rrif - 10.2013, str. 19
  The accounting of buses, cargo vehicles and industry machines is determined by the International Financial Reporting Standards and the Croatian Financial Reporting Standards as the long-term fixed assets. Accordingly, the accounting procedures mostly match with those regarding real estate, machinery and equipment. However, the new VAT Tax has partially changed their tax position. The article analyzes the new tax position of the above stated long term fixed assets in terms of accounting and points to the possible payment of the special tax on motor vehicles or the special tax on acquisition of second-hand vehicles.

Accounting and Taxes upon Deliveries of Used Material and Waste

rrif - 10.2013, str. 29
  The tax liability is transferred from the seller to the buyer in case of the delivery of used materials and the materials which cannot be re-used, industrial and non-industrial waste, waste for recycling, recycled waste, partially processed waste and other goods and services determined by the Rulebook on Value Added Tax. The above stated procedure is applied only between the tax payers registered as VAT payers in the Republic of Croatia. In the case when the used material or waste are collected by the citizens, it should be considered whether they will belong to their personal property or these citizens are engaged in the collection of waste.

Investments in Long-Term Assets by Budget Persons

rrif - 10.2013, str. 37
  The budget persons, who additionally invest into their own long-term assets, actually increase the value of such assets. Besides making additional investments into their own long-term assets, the budget persons may additionally invest into the long-term assets owned by other persons. It is important to differentiate the additional investments and the current and investment maintenance. If the budget person recorded the costs of the current and investment maintenance, instead of the additional investments, such a recording would result in the incorrect presentation of the annual financial results of the budget person.

ENC Devices and Fishing Permits

rrif - 10.2013, str. 40

  This workshop on non-profit accounting deals with the recordings and the explanation of the recordings of the additional payments for the ETC devices and the sales of fishing permits.
  The additional payments for the use of motorways create a problem in the book-keeping recordings due to the receipt of the invoice for the unrendered or unused service.
  Upon selling fishing permits a special attention should be paid to the special regulations and the contracts signed between fishing clubs and the authorized fishing associations, in order to record the income properly.
  The main substantive regulation used upon recognition of the above stated business events is the Directive on Accounting of Non-Profit Organizations (Official Gazette no. 10/08 and 07/09).

Non-Profit Legal Persons – Performing Catering Services and Provision of Services in Tourism

rrif - 10.2013, str. 42

  Besides their main activities, associations, institutions and other non-profit organizations may under certain circumstances perform economic activities – provision of catering services or services in tourism -, in order to make an income. The realized profit has to be used only for performing and improvement of their activities in order to achieve the planned goals, not in order to make a profit for their members or the third persons. The article presents the conditions under which non-profit legal persons may perform catering activities and provide services in tourism, including their obligations.

Financial Report in Non-Profit Accounting for Period January-September 2013

rrif - 10.2013, str. 47
  Principally, the non-profit organizations, which apply the double-entry book-keeping, are obliged to fill in the Form S-PR-RAS-NPF for the period January-September 2013 and submit it to the FINA. All the non-profit organizations which were established after the beginning of 2011, regardless of their size or their book-keeping system (single-entry or double-entry) subject to the above stated obligation. The Form S-PR-RAS is to be submitted only to the FINA until 21 October 2013.
  The basis for filling in the Form are the data presented in the book-keeping accounts, Due to the fact that there were no changes neither in the accounting nor in the filling in the Form, this article only points to some situations.

Amendments to Act on Sports

rrif - 10.2013, str. 50
  The Act on Sports has been amended. Although its amendments are not comprehensive, they comprise some issues which have been unsettled so far. The article presents such amendments.

Distraint Procedure in Case of Compensation for Period of Sick Leave

rrif - 10.2013, str. 52
  According to the new Act on Obligatory Health Insurance, which became effective on 1 July 2013, the compensation of the salary for the period of sick leave is exempted from the distraint procedure. The article presents the calculation of the salary i.e. the net amount of the salary for the period of sick leave, which should be exempted from the distraint procedure in the case when such a compensation is paid by the employer or by the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance.

Recruitment by Foreign Employers

rrif - 10.2013, str. 57

  The Croatian citizens may sign a contract on employment with the foreign employer and perform business activities in Croatia, even in the case when such an employer does not have a branch office in Croatia. As of 1 July 2013 the payment of taxes and contributions from salaries is different, depending on whether the employer has the headquarters in the EU countries i.e. the EEA or the third countries. It should be taken into account that the employee has all the rights from the social insurance based on the payment of contributions. The author of the text stresses the differences in the obligation and the base of payment of contributions depending on whether the employer is from the EU (or EEA) or the third country.

Non-Taxable Receipts from Budget and EU Funds (Per Diem)

rrif - 10.2013, str. 65
  The non-refundable assets paid to the persons from the funds and programmes of the European Union for realization of the mobility aimed at education and professional training du not subject to the income tax as of 5 July, 2013. Besides, as of this date the daily allowances for business trips, paid to the employees from the EU Budget for performance of their business tasks, have been considered as non-taxable receipts. The author of the text presents the ways of obtaining the rights to the EU Programmes.

Reports on Salaries in Unique JOPPD Form

rrif - 10.2013, str. 69
  As of 1 January 2014 the reports on the paid salaries, paid contributions, income tax and surtax are to be delivered in one Form – JOPPD Form – unique form of taxes, surtaxes and contributions as at.... The purpose of introducing such a unique Form is to present the data on the paid income tax and contributions in a more transparent way, which provides the information to each tax payer on the statement of the paid or unpaid liabilities, that have to be paid by the employer. The employer is also obliged to prepare the report on the date when the calculation and payment of the specific compensations were made, The Form is to be submitted via Internet to the E-Porezna. Such a way of reporting has to be applied as of 1 January 2014 for each payment of receipts, regardless of the fact in which previous period such a receipt was realized.

Market Value of Delivery as Tax Base for VAT Calculation

rrif - 10.2013, str. 81
  In the case when the deliveries are made with the compensation by the tax payer within his/her economic activities, the principle that the tax base represents the contracted compensation is applied. The tax payer is completely free and autonomous upon determination of the price of his/her deliveries and services. The so-called minimum tax base is determined for certain deliveries performed by the tax payer which have the characteristic of private i.e. non-entrepreneurial deliveries in the case when the tax payer makes deliveries without compensation. The aim is to prevent some persons, who are privately connected with the tax payer, to acquire goods and services for the final consumption at more favourable prices than the end-customers. Such a minimum tax base is the value, determined by the law-maker as the price of the new purchase, i.e. the cost of the tax payer, he/she had for the particular delivery for which a pre-tax has been deducted.

Tax Position of Distance Sales in View of VAT

rrif - 10.2013, str. 87
  The article presents the possible situations which tax payers have to face upon performing distance sales. The delivery of goods at distance by the tax payer from one member country to the buyers – end customers, i.e. the buyers who are not tax payers, in another member country is taxed in the member country from which is the supplier of goods, i.e. where the goods are placed at the beginning of the dispatch, up to the moment when the value of the delivered goods into another member country from which is the buyer crosses the so-called threshold of delivery. When the deliveries of the tax payer from one member country to the buyers who are not tax payers in another member country cross the value of the determined threshold of delivery, the place of taxation of the goods sold at distance is in the member country where the dispatch was completed. In such a case the supplier must be registered as a VAT payer in this member country.

Tax Workshop – Determination of VAT Liability according to Advance Payments for Construction Services

rrif - 10.2013, str. 93

  The article defines the accounting and taxation procedures with the received and effected advance payments in the construction industry after 1 July 2013, which refer to the construction  services rendered between the tax payers after this date with the transfer of tax liability.  In view of the contractor’s obligations, it is determined that the contractor does not calculate the VAT but transfers the obligation of VAT calculation according to the received advance payment for which he/she is obliged to issue an invoice for the client. Afterwards, the client calculates the VAT based on the advance payment and the pre-tax to which he/she has the right according to the corresponding regulations. After that, the storno of the amount per issued and received invoices for the delivered construction services is still made in the tax records, i.e. the calculation of the invoiced amount per invoice for the advance payment with the contractor without VAT and the paid amount with the calculated VAT liability and the pre-tax with the client. 

Reverse Charge in Construction Industry in EU Member Countries

rrif - 10.2013, str. 101
  In view of the transfer of tax liabilities for the services provided in the construction industry the EU member countries have different regulations on the transfer of tax liabilities. The overall opinion is that the transfer of tax liabilities for the deliveries in the construction industry made between the domestic tax payers should be regulated in order to prevent tax frauds, which frequently appear upon provision of services or deliveries in this industry. In such a way the losses of VAT, which have particularly been observed in the construction industry, can considerably be reduced.
  The differences refer to certain limitations regarding the client to whom the tax liabilities cannot be transferred and the limitations of the types of services, the performance of which subjects to the transfer of tax liabilities.

Claim for VAT Return Submitted as Contract on Cession

rrif - 10.2013, str. 106
  An enterprise may cede the right to receivables for the overpaid tax to another legal or physical person. Such a cession of receivables is determined by the contract on cession, which should be submitted to the Tax Administration. The Tax Administration is not obliged to sign such a contract. After detrmining the facts on the possible debts for public payments of the ceding party, the Tax Administration acts according to the above stated contract if the ceding party does not have any other liabilities for taxes, contributions, etc.

Other Income of Non-Residents after Accession of Republic of Croatia in European Union

rrif - 10.2013, str. 114
  Domestic companies pay to foreign physical persons – non-residents various compensations. Such payments may have different ways of calculation of income tax, depending on several important facts. Although a non-resident in the Republic of Croatia may realize taxable receipts, which can be taxed by income tax based on all the sources of income (income from non-independent work, income from capital, etc.), this article points to the taxation of the receipts which are regarded as other income according to the Croatian regulations.

Minimal Loss Taxation in Germany

rrif - 10.2013, str. 123

  The tax treatment and the dynamics of realization of the losses play an important role in the economic activities of an enterprise. In Germany the limitation of transfer of tax losses and their taxation are determined by the specific regulations. The tax loss from the previous accounting period may be deducted in the current accounting period up to the amount of EUR 1 million. The tax loss from the previous accounting period which amounts to more than EUR 1 million may be deducted up to the amount of 60% of income, whereas the rest of 40%, which is over EUR 1 million, subjects to the taxation according to the valid tax rates. The regulations also include the possibility of transfer of loss for the unlimited period of time. In view of the tax treatment of losses there are currently two professionally relevant discussions under way regarding the constitutionality of limitations of the use of losses and the trade of stakes in the companies which have accumulated losses in the previous accounting periods, in order to compensate the planned profit in the future with the losses which have been transferred by the purchased company.

Državni nameti

rrif - 10.2013, str. 130

  Država može poduzećima nametnuti različite obveze. U vezi s tim, Odbor za tumačenje MSFI (IFRS Interpretation Committee, u nastavku: IFRIC) primio je upite na koji način prikazati u računovodstvu takve obveze koje će se morati podmiriti. Upiti se odnose na problem kada priznati obvezu, u skladu s odredbama MRS-a 37 – Rezerviranja, neizvjesne obveze i neizvjesna imovina.
  1. Nameti koje nameće država
  2. Tumačenje

Budget of European Union

rrif - 10.2013, str. 131
  This is the second article in the series “European Funds and Programmes”. Three institutions, which extensively deal with the budget, decide on the EU budget from which various activities are financed. These institutions are: the European Commision which prepares a draft and the Parliament and the Council of Ministers which have to approve it. The annual budgets represent a tool for easier planning of the budget and make up a part of the long-term spending plan, which is called Multiannual Financial Framework, comprising the period of seven years. This means, that the EU can efficiently plan the spending programmes several years ahead.

Europski poticaji za rast i zapošljavanje

rrif - 10.2013, str. 137
  1. EK odobrila plan Hrvatske za ulaganje 450 milijuna eura za poticanje rasta
  2. Za inovacije 22 milijarde eura
  3. EK ulaže 13,7 milijuna eura u javne digitalne usluge
  4. Program za poticanje zapošljavanja korak bliže usvajanju
  5. Neke članice EU moraju vratiti 180 milijuna eura poljoprivredne pomoći
  6. Europsko gospodarstvo izašlo iz dosad najduže recesije
  7. Wifo: treba smanjiti oporezivanje rada u Austriji
  8. Mađarskoj prekinuto financiranje EU-projekata

New Amendments to Act on Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlement

rrif - 10.2013, str. 140

  Despite the fact that the Act on Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlement was comprehensively changed and amended more than two months ago, it has undergone the new changes. This was made by the Government Directive to the Amendments of the Act, published in the Official Gazette no. 112/2013. Compared to the previous amendments, which were rather extensive and comprised all the parts of the Act, the new Directive changes and amends the Act only in the part which refers to the pre-bankruptcy settlement. Obviously, the application of the Act has caused a number of dilemmas in practice, which makes impossible to clearly and uniquely apply the Act and to conduct the procedure of the pre-bankruptcy settlement efficiently. This is the reason why the Government changed the Act. On the other hand, this proves that the Act and its Amendments were poorly prepared.

Model of Analysis of Life Cycle of Product

rrif - 10.2013, str. 142

  The costs of the life cycle of a product represent the present value of all the costs which can be connected to a certain product in all the phases of its life cycle, including the investment phase, the cost of capital, market placement, the operating costs of its use and maintenance, the costs of disposal and other costs. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the application of the model of the analysis of the costs of the product life cycle provides an insight into the entire costs which a certain product has during its life cycle, since its creation until its termination.  A very important feature of the model of the analysis of the costs of the product life cycle is the aim to reduce the costs and to improve other functional characteristics of the product. The use of the information on the costs of the product, based on the model of the analysis of the costs of the product life cycle, represents a great help upon cost management, all aimed at achieving the market competitiveness of a certain company.

Klasifikacija plasmana i izvanbilančnih obveza kreditnih institucija

rrif - 10.2013, str. 148
  Svaka regulatorna izmjena koja znatno utječe na poslovni rezultat kreditne institucije naći će se u središtu pozornosti svake kreditne institucije. Izmjene klasifikacije aktive odnosno plasmana i izvanbilančnih obveza, na osnovi kojih je banka izložena kreditnom riziku, od posebnog su interesa ne samo kreditnih institucija nego i svih poslovnih subjekata uključenih u proces financijskog posredovanja.
  Klasifikacija plasmana i preuzetih izvanbilančnih obveza daje osnovu za određivanje primjerene razine ispravaka vrijednosti plasmana i rezervacija za izvanbilančne obveze. Gubitak zbog povećanih ispravaka vrijednosti utječe na račun dobitka, gubitka i kapital kreditne institucije te su izmjene klasifikacije plasmana bitne vlasnicima i menadžmentu kreditne institucije, komitentima, revizorima i drugim interesentima.
  1. Ključne izmjene Odluke o klasifikaciji plasmana
  2. Utjecaj izmjena Odluke o klasifikaciji plasmana
  3. Priznavanje kamatnih prihoda od djelomično nadoknadivih plasmana
  4. Odgovarajući instrumenti osiguranja (nekretnine, pokretnine, dionice, konvertibilne obveznice) – faktori smanjenja
  5. Restrukturiranje i obnavljanje plasmana
  6. Smanjenje vrijednosti plasmana rizične skupine A na skupnoj osnovi
  7. Primjena kriterija procjene kreditnog rizika i na imovinu raspoloživu za prodaju
  8. Zaključak

Frequently Asked Questions regarding Intrastat

rrif - 10.2013, str. 155
  Intrastat is the system for collecting information on the trade in goods between countries of the European Union (EU). The threshold of being included in the Intrastat is the annual value of the trade in goods between EU countries for both trade flows of more than HRK 1,700,000.00. At the moment of writing this article the first reporting month for the Intrastat form has passed. However, there are still many questions and dilemmas, to which we try to find the answers.

Errors in Intrastat Forms

rrif - 10.2013, str. 158
  The Intrastat forms sent to the IT system of the Customs Administration subject to two types of controls: the validation of the xml scheme, performed by the G2B service and the validation of the correct filling in of the fields, performed by the Intrastat application.
  In the case when the Intrastat form has the correct xml scheme and has been filled in correctly, the business entity which sent the message i.e. the reporting unit or its declarant receive the feedback message “Intrastat database is technically and formally correct”, including the register number of the acceptance of the Intrastat form. All the messages with the message that the Intrastat form is correct and accepted in the IT system of the Customs Administration are marked as IR905A. The messages on errors, which signalize that the Intrastat form does not have the correct xml scheme are marked as CC917A, whereas the messages informing on the errors made upon filling in the fields in the Intrastat form are marked as IR906A. The author of the article describes some types of errors, including the examples.  

Changes of Contract on Employment – Current Issues

rrif - 10.2013, str. 164

  The termination of employment with the offer of the changed contract on employment is the institute in which the employer terminates the contract on employment and offers to the employee the new conditions of the contract on employment. In the case of the acceptance of such an offer, the termination of employment becomes pointless. However, the employee reserves the right to dispute the allowability of such a termination of the contract on employment at the competent court. The provisions of the Labour Act which refer to the termination of employment are also applied to the the termination of employment with the offer of the changed contract on employment. The employee has to state his/her opinion on the contract on employment with the changed conditions within the period determined by the employer, which should not be shoreter than eight days. 

Co-ordination of Pension System with EU Directives

rrif - 10.2013, str. 167

  In the European Union there is no a unique system (harmonized system) in the pension insurance, according to which the rights to pension would be determined in the same way. Each EU member country applies its national systems, which is the reason why the European Union passed the Directives according to which it is required to co-ordinate the systems of various countries when a person should obtain the rights from the pension system. The co-ordination of the system comprises the simultaneous application of the national legislations on the social security of two ore more countries to the migrant worker and/or the members of his/her family, in order to obtain the rights to the compensations from the social security system. In short, the co-ordination represents a link between different national systems. The co-ordination between two states may be based on bilateral agreements on social insurance, too. As opposed to this, the EU Directives co-ordinate the systems of two and more countries under the condition of the migration clause – in the case when such a person subjects to the legislation of at least two member countries due to the fact that this qualifies the person as the migrant worker. Without the migration clause, in the case when a person is employed, performs some independent activities or resides only in one member country – there is no co-ordination of the system and accordingly, the legislation of just one member country is applied.

How to Make Public Administration More Efficient?

rrif - 10.2013, str. 174

  The article presents the thesis that the present state of the efficiency of the Public Administration is not acceptable for the most beneficiaries of their services and that such a situation should be changed. The changes should be carried out gradually with the aim to establish the new organization within the public sector, which will permanently take care of its efficiency. Accordingly, the author suggests the business model and the realization of the management – processes, projects, changes, subsidies. The article analyzes the contents of each of these activities and the way of their realization.

Recording of Joint Income

rrif - 10.2013, str. 179

  One of the important groups of income within the budgetary system is the joint income due to the fact that its collection is divided between two or among more budgetary units. Such a collection of the joint income includes the transactions on at least three accounts. The transactions on the account do not always comprise the transactions on the previous account.
  The article presents the recording of recognition of receivables i.e. the recognition of the corresponding part of income.

New Regulations regarding Legal Protection in Public Procurement System

rrif - 10.2013, str. 180
  The article explains in twelve paragraphs the changes of the legal protection within the public procurement system according to the Amendments to the Act on Public Procurement, which became effective in July 2013.

Reasons for Expulsion of Economic Entities from Procedure of Public Procurement

rrif - 10.2013, str. 188

  The Amendments to the Act on Public Procurement contains the provisions referring to the reasons for expulsion of economic entities from the procedure of public procurement. The article presents these amended provisions.

Fiscal Decentralization

rrif - 10.2013, str. 190

  The decentralized functions in the Republic of Croatia are the expenditures which have been transferred to the units of local and regional self-governments according to the specific regulations. The expenditures transferred to the units of local and regional self-governments are financed from the income realized from the additional share in the income tax and the aids for the equalization for decentralized functions. Due to the complexity of financing decentralized functions this article provides an overview of the activities connected to the system of financing these decentralized functions. The article also includes the distrubition of income from income tax. 

Financial Reports of Budgetary Accounting for Period from 1 January to 30 September 2013

rrif - 10.2013, str. 202
  The budgetary system includes the obligation of financial reporting acccording to the provisions of the accounting regulations. Such an obligation comprises the reporting during the year. Accordingly, the financial reports for the period January – September 2012 are to be prepared and submitted to the FINA. The article states the persons who are obliged to prepare such reports, the deadline of their delivery to the FINA and some other circumstances. 

Novi propisi

rrif - 10.2013, str. 204

Gospodarska kretanja u RH i EU

rrif - 10.2013, str. 207

Stručne informacije

rrif - 10.2013, str. 215
Hrvatski računovodstveni sustav HSFI, MRS, MSFI i Tumačenja (1)